Indian independence of 1947 was not easy. It took invaluable contribution of brave hearts, their sacrifices, bloodshed, and a deadly partition. As a result of which a separate Muslim nation, Pakistan was born along with free India. Over the years, it has weathered significant conflict and tension in the region.
Seventy-three years after British divided India, our country has achieved great heights.
Today we will take a look at our neighboring nation or a former part. And compare both the countries and how they had progressed after independence.
Both India and Pakistan shared a similar history and culture and were formed at the same time. We will also study about the parallel worlds and their policies since sovereignty.
Insight into India’s and Pakistan’s political and economic scenario
- During the time of independence, both the economies were wretched and slow. India moved to the path of development by inheriting public institutions set up by the Britishers. It had a significant share of industries and transportation systems.
On the other hand, Pakistan swayed away with the massive land of alluvial and irrigated Punjab farms. It had the upper hand in the critical raw materials such as cotton and jute.
- The first two decades followed almost similar planning and policies. The core features were central planning, import-substitution, and state-led and foreign-aid-financed industrialization. Both the nations carried out the five-year plans.
But Pakistan’s first five-year plan failed miserably. While India’s policy was a big success and it kicked started large public infrastructure programs.
- Pakistan witnessed political instability during the initial years. For the first eleven years of existence, it had seven different prime ministers. Contrary to what Indian leadership looked like.
However, under the military rule of General Ayub Khan, Pakistan’s economy was flourished.
- Islamabad was attaining self-sufficiency and became a hub to a booming export industry, especially in textiles. It was relaxing its licensing system while India was taking off his leftward tilt.
- A more market-friendly economic state that invited foreign investors worked well for Pakistan. Its financial reports were quite favorable in contrast to India.
- Our economy was massively hit during the 60s. Wars with China and Pakistan in 1962 and 1965 respectively led to a considerable burden. Terrible droughts also accompanied it.
- In the 1970s, Indhira Gandhi’s government worked on poverty alleviation programs. Garibi Hatao was one of the famous slogans. The new Pakistani government formed under Bhutto after the separation of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) had similar plans. Roti, Kapada Aur Makaan was their motto.
- Both states were enveloped in civil disorder. While India survived the Great Indian Emergency in 1975, Pakistan’s democracy was overtaken by military rule.
- With economic liberalization, Pakistan suffered large fiscal deficits. In 1988, it approached the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Two years later, India, too, asked the IMF for help.
In 1991, India introduced Liberalisation, Privatisation, and Globalisation (LPG), commonly known as the Economic Reforms of 1991. And Pakistan, too, introduced some radical-free market reforms.
- Another significant development was the nuclear tests. India conducted a series of atomic tests in 1998 and proclaimed itself a ‘Nuclear State.’ Shortly after this, Pakistan, too, carried out nuclear tests.
- What follows next was the Kargil war in 1999, increasing terrorism and cross border tensions and growing bitterness between the states.
Figures and Statistics of India & Pakistan
- India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in 1960 was 1.5% lower than that of Pakistan. But the condition has now reversed, and India’s GDP per capita is 16.4% higher than Pakistan.
In 2019, India’s nominal GDP was $3000 billion, whereas Pakistan’s nominal GDP was $284 billion.
- Human Index Report (HDI) 2019 by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
HDI is an average estimate of achievements in key areas of human development. Namely, long and healthy life, a decent standard of living, and education levels.
India ranks 129 among 189 countries in the 2019 HDI report while Pakistan stands on 152nd rank.
- In India, Life Expectancy at Birth is 67.1 years, whereas it is 69.4 years in Pakistan. This measure is an essential indicator of community health, poverty, and the country’s socio-economic status.
- Next up is the Gender Development Index (GDI). GDI is a measure of gender inequalities. It is measured on a scale of 0 to 1. O being the lowest and 1 being the highest.
As per UNDP, India sits at 0.747 and Pakistan at 0.829.
- Pakistan is doing far better in the World Happiness Index. It is an annual report published by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network. The report ranks 156 countries based on how happy the citizens are.
India is positioned at 144, while Pakistan is 66th as per the World Happiness Index 2020.
- Meanwhile, the Gini coefficient of income inequality states that India has high income than that of Pakistan. Income inequalities are calculated on the levels of disposable income.
- On the military front, India has more than 4.5 million active military personnel, making him the 2nd largest army. Whereas Pakistan has only 653,000 billion staff, making it a 6th largest army.
- India’s spending on defense is gigantic. It spends almost $67 billion. While on the contrary, Pakistan spends $12 billion on its military forces.
Also Read: Can India beat China in a border war?
- India’s ranking in the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) 2019 is 80, while Pakistan is positioned at 120th.
Transparency International publishes CPI. It is a measure of the “misuse of public power for personal interests.”