The Human trials of Coronavirus Vaccine set forth by India, COVAXIN begins in AIIMS-Delhi, Redkar Hospital in Goa, and Bhubaneswar’s Institute of Medical Sciences and SUM Hospital.
The rollout of Vaccine proposed to be launched by the end of this year, the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca has a significant possibility to attain fair results, but there are no certainties yet. Whereas in India, the two potential Coronavirus Vaccines are in Phase 1 and Phase 2 of their trails. The discussions of how this Vaccine will be submitted nationwide for those who need it is still a matter of concern: VK Paul, Member (Health), NITI Aayog.
China, on the other hand, conducted phase 2 trials over a potential coronavirus vaccine. Of which the initial results have shown promising aspects. It provides a better hold than it performed in its period one test. According to the data over the results suggest that this trial included a small sub-group of volunteers over the age of 55 years and above, mentioned in The Lancet.
Making Vaccine against Coronavirus has become an intriguing rat race after hopeful achievements made in UK’s Oxford-AstraZeneca, Russia, US-Based Moderna, India’s COVAXIN, and Zydus Cadila along with Chinese companies including Sinovac which also made significant progress.
The globe now witnesses over 160 ‘Potential’ Coronovirus COVID-19 vaccines, which lie in different phases of their development. Out of which, over 20 vaccines have managed to enter human trials phase.
On July 20, Oxfords-AstraZeneca’s proposed Vaccine came out to be a beacon of hope. The Lancet published reassuring results of its ½ vaccine trial. The report states the results to be ‘Safe, Well-tolerated, and immunogenic.’
Oxford-AstraZeneca has tied up about nine firms across the World. They have committed to producing about 2 million doses after the Vaccine gets justified approval. Along with the nine partners lies the Serum Institute of India in Pune. It has come to notice that this tied up bond will soon begin clinical trials in India as soon as they have the license from the Indian regulator DGCI.
Human trials have begun to take place in India at AIIM-Delhi and PGI-Rohtak. After the development of a potential Vaccine at the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR), Bharat Biotech International Limited (BBIL), and National Institute of Virology, Pune. Clinical trials of the Covaxin will also begin at Medical institutes and hospitals located in Visakhapatnam, Belgaum in Karnataka, Nagpur, Uttar Pradesh’s Gorakhpur and Kanpur, Tamil Nadu’s Kattankulathur, Hyderabad, and Arya Nagar.
Claims are that the World’s ‘first’ Coronavirus vaccine is to be proposed by Russia, which will be readily available to use by August.
US-Based Moderna was the first one to go under human trials for the Vaccine that they proposed on March 16, five days after the WHO termed this virus as the ‘Pandemic.’
The firm has shown relevant results over the months, and on July 27 will go under Phase 3 trials with about 30,000 volunteers.
Whereas, Large Scale testing is underway in Brazil over six states. Bangladesh has also received a green flag to proceed with its Phase 3 trials with Sinovac.
List of Coronavirus Vaccine Trials/Phase:
Preclinical: At this stage, Vaccines are given to animals such as mice or monkeys to see if it produces any immunity responses.
Few Vaccines under Pre-clinical:
- Sanofi, A French Pharmaceutical company, is developing an mRNA vaccine in partnership with Translate Bio. They will be shifting to Phase I in the fall.
- A Swiss Company – Novartis, is working on a vaccine that is based on gene therapy treatment. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Hospital develop it. Phase I trials will begin in late 2020.
Phase I: Here, Scientists examine the Vaccine on a small number of people to test the safety and liability of the dose.
Phase II: Here, Scientists give the Vaccine to a group of hundreds of people, which are further split into groups. Testing the liability across various age groups to the safety and to check the ability of how it affects the immune system.
Few Vaccines under Phase I and II trials:
- With the Collaboration of the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology, the Indian company Bharat Biotech designed a vaccine called Covaxin. Initially, it was noted that the Vaccine, which was launched for Phase I/II trials, would be ready by August 15. But, the C.E.O. of Bharat confirmed that it wouldn’t be anytime sooner than early 2021.
- Zydus Cadila, the Indian Vaccine maker, has also entered in the Green Zone of Human Trials.
- Maryland-based Novavax has also ventured its way into Phase I/II trials, and if it succeeds in making the Vaccine, it will be delivering about 100 million doses for use by the first quarter of 2021.
- Imperial College London had also begun Phase I/II trials by mid-June. They can only be sure about the Vaccine by the end of this year.
- BioNTech a German-based Company with collaborations with Pfizer. In July, they came with the results from Phase I/II trials in the US and Germany.
Phase III: At this stage, Scientists give the Vaccine to about thousands of people and wait to see the results.
Moderna, British-Swedish based company AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford along with Sinovac in Brazil have entered the Phase III.
A Chinese Company CanSino Biologics in partnership with the Institute of Biology at the country’s Academy of Military Medical Sciences. This Vaccine has a limited approval as the Chinese military approved the Vaccine for a year as an “especially needed drug.”
Some recent updates include:
- Johnson & Johnson begins its Phase I trials.
- Kentucky BioProcessing enters Phase I trials.
- Gamaleya Research Institute, Russia plans Phase III trials.
- North Korea also claims they have started clinical trials of a vaccine.